Imperialism, Opium, and Self-Strengthening In the s China simultaneously experiences major internal strains and Western imperialist pressure, backed by military might which China cannot match. Japan is able to adapt rapidly to match the power of the West and soon establishes itself as a competitor with the Western powers for colonial rights in Asia. InJapan challenges and defeats China in a war over influence in Korea, thereby upsetting the traditional international order in East Asia, where China was the supreme power and Japan a tribute-bearing subordinate power.
The Colonization of Africa Ehiedu E. Iweriebor — Hunter College Between the s andAfrica faced European imperialist aggression, diplomatic pressures, military invasions, and eventual conquest and colonization.
At the same time, African societies put up various forms of resistance against the attempt to colonize their countries and impose foreign domination. By the early twentieth century, however, much of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, had been colonized by European powers.
The European imperialist push into Africa was motivated by three main factors, economic, political, and social. It developed in the nineteenth century following the collapse of the profitability of the slave trade, its abolition and suppression, as well as the expansion of the European capitalist Industrial Revolution.
The imperatives of capitalist industrialization—including the demand for assured sources of raw materials, the search for guaranteed markets and profitable investment outlets—spurred the European scramble and the partition and eventual conquest of Africa.
Thus the primary motivation for European intrusion was economic. The Scramble for Africa But other factors played an important role in the process. The political impetus derived from the impact of inter-European power struggles and competition for preeminence.
One way to demonstrate national preeminence was through the acquisition of territories around the world, including Africa. The social factor was the third major element. As a result of industrialization, major social problems grew in Europe: These social problems developed partly because not all people could be absorbed by the new capitalist industries.
One way to resolve this problem was to acquire colonies and export this "surplus population. Eventually the overriding economic factors led to the colonization of other parts of Africa.
Mainland Southeast Asia. Over the course of the nineteenth century, Southeast Asia is colonized by Britain, France, and Holland. In , the Dutch government takes over the Dutch East India Company’s rule of parts of the Indonesian archipelago. What attracted European imperialism to Africa & to Asia in the late nineteenth century. Research Paper Mortimer Chambers et al define imperialism as a European state's intervention in and continuing domination over a non-European territory. On the other hand, writers like John Conard and Holison are highly critical of the role of western imperialism in Asia and Africa. They associate imperialism with exploitation, misery, poverty, cruelty, conversion, degradation and racial segregation. Holison says .
Thus it was the interplay of these economic, political, and social factors and forces that led to the scramble for Africa and the frenzied attempts by European commercial, military, and political agents to declare and establish a stake in different parts of the continent through inter-imperialist commercial competition, the declaration of exclusive claims to particular territories for trade, the imposition of tariffs against other European traders, and claims to exclusive control of waterways and commercial routes in different parts of Africa.
This scramble was so intense that there were fears that it could lead to inter-imperialist conflicts and even wars. To prevent this, the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck convened a diplomatic summit of European powers in the late nineteenth century. This was the famous Berlin West African conference more generally known as the Berlin Conferenceheld from November to February The conference produced a treaty known as the Berlin Act, with provisions to guide the conduct of the European inter-imperialist competition in Africa.
Some of its major articles were as follows: The Principle of Notification Notifying other powers of a territorial annexation The Principle of Effective Occupation to validate the annexations Freedom of Trade in the Congo Basin Freedom of Navigation on the Niger and Congo Rivers Freedom of Trade to all nations Suppression of the Slave Trade by land and sea This treaty, drawn up without African participation, provided the basis for the subsequent partition, invasion, and colonization of Africa by various European powers.
The African Resistance The European imperialist designs and pressures of the late nineteenth century provoked African political and diplomatic responses and eventually military resistance. During and after the Berlin Conference various European countries sent out agents to sign so-called treaties of protection with the leaders of African societies, states, kingdoms, decentralized societies, and empires.
The differential interpretation of these treaties by the contending forces often led to conflict between both parties and eventually to military encounters. For Europeans, these treaties meant that Africans had signed away their sovereignties to European powers; but for Africans, the treaties were merely diplomatic and commercial friendship treaties.
After discovering that they had in effect been defrauded and that the European powers now wanted to impose and exercise political authority in their lands, African rulers organized militarily to resist the seizure of their lands and the imposition of colonial domination.
This situation was compounded by commercial conflicts between Europeans and Africans. During the early phase of the rise of primary commodity commerce erroneously referred to in the literature as "Legitimate Trade or Commerce"Europeans got their supplies of trade goods like palm oil, cotton, palm kernel, rubber, and groundnut from African intermediaries, but as the scramble intensified, they wanted to bypass the African intermediaries and trade directly with sources of the trade goods.In historical contexts, New Imperialism characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The period featured an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions. In , Japan challenges and defeats China in a war over influence in Korea, thereby upsetting the traditional international order in East Asia, where China was the supreme power and Japan a tribute-bearing subordinate power.
Mainland Southeast Asia. Over the course of the nineteenth century, Southeast Asia is colonized by Britain, France, and Holland. In , the Dutch government takes over the Dutch East India Company’s rule of parts of the Indonesian archipelago.
What attracted European imperialism to Africa & to Asia in the late nineteenth century. During the 'Scramble for Africa' in the late nineteenth century, the most powerful European nations desired to conquer, dominate and exploit African colonies with the hope of building an empire.
At the time, non-Western nations in Africa and Asia. INTRODUCTION. In the late 19th century, between roughly and , a handful of European nations conquered most of Africa.
Since this came after more than three centuries of relatively cooperative trading activity between Europeans and Africans, it represents a . Imperialism, Colonialism, and Resistance in the Nineteenth Century Imperialism = a policy of conquering and ruling other lands.
Imperialism In The Nineteenth European acquisition of colonial territories in the South Pacific, Asia, and Africa. New Imperialism.