Workers most likely to experience inhalation or skin exposures to methanol include bookbinders, bronzers, dyers, foundry workers, gilders, hatmakers, ink makers, laboratory technicians, painters, photoengravers, and chemical manufacturers. In addition, administrative aides or others using mimeograph machines may be exposed to methanol, as well as workers at refineries, fuel distribution centers, and service stations, if they handle methanol-containing fuels.
Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Integrating a Missing Element into Medical Education. The National Academies Press. Both chemicals are clear, colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting, highly viscous liquids. They have low vapor pressures at room temperature, indicating low potential for inhalation exposure.
Despite similarities in physical properties and chemical structure, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol have vastly different toxicities.
Ethylene glycol is acutely toxic to humans, whereas propylene glycol is a safe additive for foods and medications. Propylene glycol causes poisoning only rarely and under unusual circumstances.
These glycols should not be confused with glycol ethers e.
A discussion of ethylene glycol follows; discussion of propylene glycol begins on page Ethylene glycol is used in many industries because it has the ability to absorb water and to prevent overheating or freezing. It is used extensively in automotive fluids such as antifreeze, coolants, and hydraulic fluids.
Ethylene glycol is also used in cosmetics, fat extractants, and as a chemical intermediate. As a solvent, it is found in inks, stains, pesticides, fire extinguishers, foams, polishes, and adhesives.
Its heat-regulation properties are employed in air conditioning units and solar energy systems. Synonyms for ethylene glycol include ethylene alcohol, glycol alcohol, glycol, 1,2-dihydroxyethane, and 1,2-ethanediol.
Department of Health and Human Services. In military and commercial aviation, large amounts of ethylene glycol are used for deicing.
It is sprayed as an aerosol or mist onto airplane wings to prevent ice buildup. Ethylene glycol is also used in coolant loops in spacecraft and in aviator protective clothing; both applications present potential for exposure if leaks occur.
Ethylene glycol does not persist in ambient air in large amounts because breakdown is rapid half-life in air is 24 to 50 hours. Its low vapor pressure precludes substantial inhalation exposure at ambient temperatures, and its poor skin absorption prevents significant absorption after dermal contact.
Ethylene glycol is miscible with water and adheres to soil half-life in water and soil is several days.
Because it is not fat-soluble, bioconcentration and bioaccumulation are insignificant. Workers in industries that manufacture or use products containing ethylene glycol, particularly operations involving automobile maintenance and aircraft deicing, are at greatest risk of exposure.
Although dermal contact is the main route of occupational exposure, vapors or mists can be inhaled when the chemical is heated, agitated, or sprayed. There have been no reports of adverse health effects from chronic environmental exposures to ethylene glycol, and few data exist to evaluate such effects from these exposure scenarios.
In the general population, ethylene glycol exposure occurs most commonly through accidental or intentional ingestion of antifreeze. During3, cases of ethylene glycol exposure were reported to the 72 poison centers participating in the National Data Collection System of the American Association of Poison Control Centers.
The general population can also be exposed to ethylene glycol by dermal contact while handling automotive antifreezes, coolants, and brake fluids; however, such exposure is not likely to cause adverse health effects under normal conditions.
Inhalation is not an important route of exposure under normal conditions of use. Ethylene glycol is rapidly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, less rapidly by the lungs, and slowly through the skin.
Because it is highly water-soluble, ethylene glycol is evenly distributed throughout the body. It reaches peak tissue levels 1 to 4 hours after ingestion. Approximately 24 hours later, no unchanged ethylene glycol is detected in urine or tissues, indicating rapid biotransformation.
The normal serum half-life of ethylene glycol is approximately 2.The records of Forensic Medicine Council of Turkey Bursa Morgue Department reveal the first case of fatal methanol ingestion in a child.
Household methanol exposures are mostly due to accidental. Methanol (methyl alcohol) is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid with a faintly pleasant odor. Popularly known as wood alcohol, methanol has historically been referred to as wood spirit, wood naphtha, pyroligneous spirit, and carbinol.
Read chapter Case Study Methanol Toxicity: People are increasingly concerned about potential environmental health hazards and often ask their physicia. Jan 30, · In their study of 38 patients from a Czech methanol mass poisoning in , S-formate levels ≥ mmol/L were seen to lead to the first clinical signs of visual toxicity, indicating hemodialysis.
S-formate ≥ mmol/L was associated with visual/CNS sequelae and a lethal outcome. The records of Forensic Medicine Council of Turkey Bursa Morgue Department reveal the first case of fatal methanol ingestion in a child.
Household methanol exposures are mostly due to accidental. recognize methanol poisoning instantly (6). We presented FATAL METHANOL INGESTION IN A CHILD: CASE REPORT Nursel Türkmen1, Bulent Eren2, Gűrsel Cetin3 different study which also revealed that outcomes data in toddlers resulted in comlete treatment with no sequelae (3).