To make matters worse, laws were passed in some states to limit voting rights for blacks. Moreover, southern segregation gained ground in when the U. Supreme Court declared in Plessy v.
It shifted to a new phase. The long official story line of the civil rights movement runs from Montgomery to Memphis, from the bus boycott that introduced Dr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. The shock, grief, and rage that ensued, in the conventional account, become the veritable end of the movement. All that followed is treated as incidental to, if not decline or detour from, the glory days of struggle. But that endpoint obscures far more than it illuminates, a new generation of scholarship has revealed.
It is now clear that A. King was more prescient than the pundits from whom first-wave historians took their cue. What journalists took as the end of the movement marked, instead, a shift to a new phase in which the reforms the movement won and the ongoing obstacles it confronted created a new and more complex terrain of struggle.
The civil rights legislation of the mids set the stage for the real work of equality in jobs, education, politics, and the military. The Civil Rights Act of did not simply open public accommodations, such as lunch counters and bus stations. It made possible the first large-scale progress in breaking down job segregationa primary goal of civil rights activists from at least the s onward.
While some fought discrimination using the Civil Rights Act, other black workers organized to improve conditions in their existing jobs, as the Memphis sanitation strike inspired a vast wave of union organizing.
Led by black municipal and hospital workers, the public sector became the best organized part of the U. There, African American men and women, especially, achieved their greatest income and promotion gains.
In the area of school segregation, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act and subsequent court victories enabled other activists to make the first significant headway in breaking down since the Supreme Court had issued its Brown v. Board of Education decision over a decade before.
Still others, using the Voting Rights Act ofopened electoral politics to African American voters and candidates as never before.
In the South, the impact was stunning, as newly enfranchised black voters partnered with liberal and moderate whites to elect more African Americans than the region had seen since Reconstruction. In the cities of the North and West, black communities gained representation as never before. Nationally, forty-three black candidates won election as mayor ina number that quintupled over the next fifteen years.
Shirley Chisholm As African Americans gained new access to white-dominated institutions, the freedom struggle moved inside from the streets. On college campuses, black students fought for and won the creation of Afro-American Studies programs and financial aid policies that would allow children of lower-income families to get college educations.
In the military, one of the largest employers of African Americans, affirmative action and other policies produced one of the most racially equitable workplaces in the nation—indeed, the only one in which whites routinely have black supervisors. The Congressional Black Caucus was only the best-publicized and most influential of these.
Created in by Shirley Chisholm D-NY, and others, it joined together a new critical mass of African American representatives as it enabled them to speak with a common voice on issues of concern to their constituents.
After the s the civil rights movement confronted new issues and forged new alliances. The new stage of struggle also saw more active coalition-building with other groups affected by discrimination and inequality.
Blacks and Jews had worked together in the early postwar decades to secure anti-discrimination measures. AfterBlacks and Latinos and Asian Americans sometimes joined together in campaigns for substantive equal treatment and better life chances.
Black and Puerto Rican activists built coalitions with white feminists to end the practice of sterilization abuse, which targeted women of color, and to seek a broad range of reproductive rights, including quality child care and maternal and child health care.
Poor black women in the welfare rights movement, for their part, sometimes found stronger allies among liberal white women and progressive Catholics than among mainstream male-led civil rights groups fearful of being associated with unmarried mothers seeking better public assistance.
Even with the legislative victories of the s, many obstacles to equality remained, especially in employment and housing.
Still, efforts to promote equity and inclusion throughout American society faced daunting road blocks, and it was clear as early as the mids that they would not be removed easily.
Two and a half centuries of slavery and another hundred years of pervasive discrimination had left deep imprints on all American institutions.
Every industry that employed African Americans had developed its own variant of entrenched occupational segregation.
The housing markets of every major metropolitan area bore the marks of decades of restrictive covenants and real estate red-lining, and of postwar white flight to homogenous suburbs. School systems, honoring those dividing lines and funded by unequal property taxes, systematically underserved black children.When most Americans think of the Civil Rights Movement, they have in mind a span of time beginning with the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v.
Board of Education, which outlawed segregated education, or the Montgomery Bus Boycott and culminated in the late s or early s. The movement. Civil rights movements are a worldwide series of political movements for equality before the law, that peaked in the s.  In many situations they have been characterized by nonviolent protests, or have taken the form of campaigns of civil resistance aimed at achieving change through nonviolent forms of r-bridal.com some situations, they have been accompanied, or followed.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) in the United States was a decades-long movement with the goal of enforcing constitutional and legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already enjoyed.
With roots starting in the Reconstruction era during the late 19th century, the movement. The Birmingham Campaign is considered one of the most influential campaigns of the Civil Rights Movement.
It would become a major catalyst for the Civil Rights Act of and usher a new era of. Civil Rights Movement Documents Listed by Organization Submissions Policy.
This section contains original documents and materials created or distributed by Freedom Movement . The civil rights movement did not end in It shifted to a new r-bridal.com long official story line of the civil rights movement runs from Montgomery to Memphis, from the bus boycott that introduced Dr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. () to the nation, to the final struggle where an.