Three Types of Instructional Activities Constructivism — Learning and Teaching This page begins by emphasizing that active learning occurs "whenever experiences stimulate mental activities that lead to meaningful learning," and this cognitive activity does not require physical activity. Section 2B assumes a cognitive constructivist view of learning-and-teaching: What are the educational implications of constructivist learning theories?
History of the issue Questions about the nature of conscious awareness have likely been asked for as long as there have been humans. Neolithic burial practices appear to express spiritual beliefs and provide early evidence for at least minimally reflective thought about the nature of human consciousness PearsonClark and Riel-Salvatore Preliterate cultures have similarly been found Compare and contrast 3 motivational theories to embrace some form of spiritual or at least animist view that indicates a degree of reflection about the nature of conscious awareness.
Nonetheless, some have argued that consciousness as we know it today is a relatively recent historical development that arose sometime after the Homeric era Jaynes According to this view, earlier humans including those who fought the Trojan War did not experience themselves as unified internal subjects of their thoughts and actions, at least not in the ways we do today.
Though the ancients had much to say about mental matters, it is less clear whether they had any specific concepts or concerns for what we now think of as consciousness.
The Hamlet who walked the stage in already saw his world and self with profoundly modern eyes. By the beginning of the early modern era in the seventeenth century, consciousness had come full center in thinking about the mind.
Indeed from the midth through the late 19th century, consciousness was widely regarded as essential or definitive of the mental. Later, toward the end of the 17th century, John Locke offered a similar if slightly more qualified claim in An Essay on Human UnderstandingI do not say there is no soul in man because he is not sensible of it in his sleep.
But I do say he can not think at any time, waking or sleeping, without being sensible of it. Our being sensible of it is not necessary to anything but our thoughts, and to them it is and to them it always will be necessary.
Locke explicitly forswore making any hypothesis about the substantial basis of consciousness and its relation to matter, but he clearly regarded it as essential to thought as well as to personal identity. Leibniz was the first to distinguish explicitly between perception and apperception, i. In the Monadology he also offered his famous analogy of the mill to express his belief that consciousness could not arise from mere matter.
He asked his reader to imagine someone walking through an expanded brain as one would walk through a mill and observing all its mechanical operations, which for Leibniz exhausted its physical nature. Nowhere, he asserts, would such an observer see any conscious thoughts.
Despite Leibniz's recognition of the possibility of unconscious thought, for most of the next two centuries the domains of thought and consciousness were regarded as more or less the same. Associationist psychology, whether pursued by Locke or later in the eighteenth century by David Hume or in the nineteenth by James Millaimed to discover the principles by which conscious thoughts or ideas interacted or affected each other.
James Mill's son, John Stuart Mill continued his father's work on associationist psychology, but he allowed that combinations of ideas might produce resultants that went beyond their constituent mental parts, thus providing an early model of mental emergence The purely associationist approach was critiqued in the late eighteenth century by Immanuel Kantwho argued that an adequate account of experience and phenomenal consciousness required a far richer structure of mental and intentional organization.
Phenomenal consciousness according to Kant could not be a mere succession of associated ideas, but at a minimum had to be the experience of a conscious self situated in an objective world structured with respect to space, time and causality.
Within the Anglo-American world, associationist approaches continued to be influential in both philosophy and psychology well into the twentieth century, while in the German and European sphere there was a greater interest in the larger structure of experience that lead in part to the study of phenomenology through the work of Edmund Husserl, Martin HeideggerMaurice Merleau-Ponty and others who expanded the study of consciousness into the realm of the social, the bodily and the interpersonal.
At the outset of modern scientific psychology in the mid-nineteenth century, the mind was still largely equated with consciousness, and introspective methods dominated the field as in the work of Wilhelm WundtHermann von HelmholtzWilliam James and Alfred Titchener However, the relation of consciousness to brain remained very much a mystery as expressed in T.
Huxley's famous remark, How it is that anything so remarkable as a state of consciousness comes about as a result of irritating nervous tissue, is just as unaccountable as the appearance of the Djin, when Aladdin rubbed his lamp In the s, the grip of behaviorism weakened with the rise of cognitive psychology and its emphasis on information processing and the modeling of internal mental processes NeisserGardiner However, despite the renewed emphasis on explaining cognitive capacities such as memory, perception and language comprehension, consciousness remained a largely neglected topic for several further decades.
In the s and 90s there was a major resurgence of scientific and philosophical research into the nature and basis of consciousness BaarsDennettPenrose, CrickLycan, Chalmers It may be conscious in the generic sense of simply being a sentient creature, one capable of sensing and responding to its world Armstrong Being conscious in this sense may admit of degrees, and just what sort of sensory capacities are sufficient may not be sharply defined.
Are fish conscious in the relevant respect? And what of shrimp or bees? One might further require that the organism actually be exercising such a capacity rather than merely having the ability or disposition to do so.
Thus one might count it as conscious only if it were awake and normally alert. In that sense organisms would not count as conscious when asleep or in any of the deeper levels of coma. Again boundaries may be blurry, and intermediate cases may be involved. For example, is one conscious in the relevant sense when dreaming, hypnotized or in a fugue state?
A third and yet more demanding sense might define conscious creatures as those that are not only aware but also aware that they are aware, thus treating creature consciousness as a form of self-consciousness Carruthers The self-awareness requirement might get interpreted in a variety of ways, and which creatures would qualify as conscious in the relevant sense will vary accordingly.
If it is taken to involve explicit conceptual self-awareness, many non-human animals and even young children might fail to qualify, but if only more rudimentary implicit forms of self-awareness are required then a wide range of nonlinguistic creatures might count as self-conscious. What it is like.
In Nagel's example, bats are conscious because there is something that it is like for a bat to experience its world through its echo-locatory senses, even though we humans from our human point of view can not emphatically understand what such a mode of consciousness is like from the bat's own point of view.
Subject of conscious states.ABSTRACT - Motivation-need theories are reviewed, their implications to consumer behavior investigated, and the various findings and concepts integrated in formulating a model of generic choice prediction. A listing of psychological research being conducted online.
r-bridal.com: Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy in Action Video Demonstrations (): With David Hutchinson: Books. 3. Cultural-Personal Factors in Theory Evaluation. An Overview of Scientific Method, Section 3. THE JOY OF r-bridal.com most scientists, a powerful psychological motivation is curiosity about "how things work" and a taste for intellectual stimulation.
Individuals come to “know” their own attitudes, emotions, and other internal states partially by inferring them from observations of their own overt behavior and/ .
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