Bullying and Its Prevention:
Open School BC, Canada Abstract Siemens and Downes initially received increasing attention in the blogosphere in when they discussed their ideas concerning distributed knowledge. This has led to a number of questions in relation to existing learning theories. Would a new theory that encompasses new developments in digital technology be more appropriate, and would it be suitable for other aspects of learning, including in the traditional class room, in distance education and e-learning?
This paper will highlight current theories of learning and critically analyse connectivism within the context of its predecessors, to establish if it has anything new to offer as a learning theory or as an approach to teaching for the 21st Century.
Kerr d identifies two purposes for the development of a new theory: If older theories are to be replaced by connectivism, then what are the grounds for this measure?
If connectivism is to build on older theories, how is the integration of the old and new theories to be conducted?
The wide range of approaches and learning paths that are available to redesign curricula cause friction for educators and instructional designers who are required to deliver course materials in accordance with learning outcomes prescribed and mandated by educational institutions.
Overview of Connectivism Connectivism is a theoretical framework for understanding learning. In connectivism, the starting point for learning occurs when knowledge is actuated through the process of a learner connecting to and feeding information into a learning community.
Nodes arise out of the connection points that are found on a network. A network is comprised of two or more nodes linked in order to share resources. Nodes may be of varying size and strength, depending on the concentration of information and the number of individuals who are navigating through a particular node Downes, According to connectivism, knowledge is distributed across an information network and can be stored in a variety of digital formats.
Learning transpires through the use of both the cognitive and the affective domains; cognition and the emotions both contribute to the learning process in important ways. Since information is constantly changing, its validity and accuracy may change over time, depending on the discovery of new contributions pertaining to a subject.
Connectivism stresses that two important skills that contribute to learning are the ability to seek out current information, and the ability to filter secondary and extraneous information. The ability to make decisions on the basis of information that has been acquired is considered integral to the learning process.
The learning process is cyclical, in that learners will connect to a network to share and find new information, will modify their beliefs on the basis of new learning, and will then connect to a network to share these realizations and find new information once more.
Learners may transverse networks through multiple knowledge domains. The peripheries of knowledge fields are porous, allowing for the interdisciplinary connections to be made.
Is Connectivism a Learning Theory? Gredler refers to four constituent elements that must exist to qualify a theory as well-constructed: Instead of modelling our knowledge structures as hierarchical or flat, confined belief spaces, the view of networks enables the existence of contrasting elements selected on the intent of a particular research or learning activities.
If the silos of traditional knowledge classification schemes are more fluid, perhaps the individual elements of different theories can be adopted, as required, to solve more nuances of learning problems. When the theory does not require adoption in its fullest i. In general, an emerging theory should fall within the domain of scientific research, use scientific methods, and be based on previously conducted studies.
It should be logically constructed and verifiable through testing. In contrast, a developmental theory may attempt to take strides towards becoming an established formal theory over time.
Developmental theories are fertile testing grounds for ideas, which, in turn, may lead to empirical research that can then validate — or disprove — formal hypotheses posited within the framework of the scientific method.
They attribute meaning to facts within the context of a broad organizational framework. The framework may place particular emphasis and interest on some facts over others, which in turn can lead to further inquiry on the basis of a prioritization of information.ABSTRACT.
This paper offers a critical review of the theoretical literature on the relationship between the production of scientific knowledge and its use in policy formulation and implementation. DEBATE DEBATE. Use of research results in policy decision-making, formulation, and implementation: a review of the literature.
La utilización de los resultados de la investigación en el proceso de decisión, formulación y implementación de políticas: una revisión de la literatura. REVIEW ARTICLE.
Provision of investigational drug after clinical research - review of literature, national and international guidelines. Sonia Mansoldo Dainesi I; Moisés Goldbaum II.
I PhD in Preventive Medicine; Medical Director, Boehringer Ingelheim do Brasil, São Paulo, SP, Brazil II PhD in Preventive Medicine; Professor of Preventive .
We organize our review around an economics-based framework that examines the supply and demand forces that shape the audit market.
A dominant feature of the literature we review is . Approaches to learning: Literature review 1 Approaches to learning: Literature review Executive summary Introduction The International Baccalaureate’s (IB) major objectives are “to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring.
CHEST Annual Meeting Abstracts. Find abstracts of original investigations from slides and posters presented at CHEST , held October , in San Antonio, Texas, featuring essential updates in lung diseases, improving patient care, and trends in morbidity and mortality.. Browse the CHEST Annual Meeting abstracts.