Thailand[ edit ] The Thai medical education is 6 years system, consisting of 1 year in basic-science, 2 years in pre-clinical training, and 3 years for clinical training. Upon graduation, all medical students must pass national medical licensing examinations and a university-based comprehensive test. After medical school, newly graduated doctor are under contract to spend a year of internship and 2 years of tenure in rural areas before they are eligible for any other residency positions or specialized training.
Program Pharmaceutical care or Industrial Pharmacy is a six-year academic program. Belgium[ edit ] The education of pharmacists in Belgium requires a minimum of five years of university study.
EU-harmonisation has led to division into three bachelor and two master years. A bachelor title is, however, not used at all professionally. Belgium considers the educational level of their current M.
To become a hospital pharmacist, a three-year residency program has to be completed after obtaining the M. Pharmaciae doctor diploma can be obtained by pharmacists who have previously graduated in pharmacy MagisterMgr.
Applicants must defend a research or experimental thesis, and pass a rigorous examination. It is different from the postgraduate Ph.
France[ edit ] In FrancePharm. D studies can only be accessed through a competitive examination " concours ", with numerus clausus happening at the end of the first year of health studies.
In case of failure, it is possible to retry once. In order to obtain the state diploma of "Doctor of Pharmacy", the studies last a minimum of six years, or nine years for students choosing residency hospital pharmacy or medical biology. It is accessible through another competitive exam, even more selective.
Students must specialise when entering the 5th year, and choose between dispensing pharmacy, pharmaceutical industry or hospital residency.
In any case, a month part-time hospital externship is mandatory during the fifth year, although some flexibility is possible for students choosing industry. Sixth year for industry is generally dedicated to further specialisation with a former Professional Master's degree or a former Research Master's degree including internship.
Hungary[ edit ] In Hungary, pharmacists obtain their master's degree, after five years of study. At the end of this period, the student must pass a nationwide exam to be legally entitled for practicing the profession of pharmacy, after acquiring the pharmacist work license. According to the new law inwhich is valid fromall pharmacists, who have acquired the master's degree of Pharmacy, are entitled to the Doctor of Pharmacy.
Italy[ edit ] In order to obtain the state diploma of "Doctor of Pharmacy", the studies last a minimum of 5 years, or 9 years for students choosing residency hospital pharmacymedical biology or pharmacology. In Italy the Professional degree in Pharmacy lasts 5 years, which includes a 6-month professional training in a public pharmacy or hospital.
At the end of this period, the student must pass a nationwide exam to be legally entitled to practise as a pharmacist.
The subscription to "Pharmacist's Order", or in Italian "Ordine dei Farmacisti", is required for working in private and public pharmacies or hospitals. It is not required if the pharmacist is working at a pharmaceutical company.
Malta[ edit ] In Malta, the warrant to practice as a pharmacist is given after the Master of Pharmacy course is completed successfully.
The Doctorate in Pharmacy course is offered in collaboration with the University of Illinois in Chicago and uses a mixed-approach learning programme including theory and practical experience. EU-harmonisation has led to division into three bachelor and three master years.
The Dutch consider the educational level of their current M. Before the harmonization a four-year Master of Science was superseded by two more years of university education preparing for pharmacy practice. To become a hospital pharmacist, a four-year residency program has to be completed after that.
Portugal[ edit ] In Portugal, pharmacy studies consists of four years of basic school, five years of preparatory school, and three years of high school, where afterward the student is submitted to nationwide exams.
The process is the same for every degree the student chooses, from medicine to engineering. The student takes the master's degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences equivalent to the PharmD program in one of the nine Pharmacy faculties with their own respective numerous clausus which comprises a six-year rigorous study 5 with the uniformities in EU teaching.
Finished the degree, the academic title of Doctor of Pharmacy is issued.The MAcc program prepares students to meet challenges they face in launching a career in public accounting.
The structured educational experience of a graduate program broadens and deepens the student's knowledge and skills. Africa Algeria. In Algeria, Doctor of Pharmacy degree replaced the state's diploma of pharmacist in , thus concepts on clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical care were taught for the first time.
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The following list of dissertations represent research conducted in the area of emotions and emotional intelligence in organizational settings with adult populations. Doctor Patient Communication Skils Dissertation.
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