Weight loss Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, some people with high blood sugar have no symptoms. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop over a short period. People may be very sick by the time they are diagnosed.
Symptoms[ edit ] Cats will generally show a gradual onset of the disease over a few weeks or months, and it may escape notice for Insulin and diabetes longer. Appetite is suddenly either ravenous up to three-times normal or absent. These symptoms arise from the body being unable to use glucose as an energy source.
A fasting glucose blood test Insulin and diabetes normally be suggestive of diabetes at this point. The same home blood test monitors used in humans are used on cats, usually by obtaining blood from the ear edges or paw pads.
As the disease progresses, ketone bodies will be present in the urine, which can be detected with the same urine strips as in humans. In the final stages, the cat starts wasting and the body will breaking down its own fat and muscle to survive. Untreated, diabetes leads to coma and then death.
Diabetic emergencies[ edit ] Too little insulin over time can cause tissue starvation as glucose can't reach the brain or body.
In combination with dehydration, fasting, infection, or other body stresses, this can turn over a few hours into diabetic ketoacidosisa medical emergency with a high fatality rate, that cannot be treated at home.
Many undiagnosed diabetic cats first come to the vet in this state, since they haven't been receiving insulin.
Symptoms include lethargy, acetone or fruity smell on breath, shortness of breath, high blood sugar, huge thirst drive.
Emergency care includes fluid therapy, insulin, management of presenting symptoms and hour hospitalization. Complications[ edit ] The back legs may become weak and the gait may become stilted or wobbly, due to diabetic neuropathywhich is caused by damage to the myelin sheath of the peripheral nerves due to glucose toxicity and cell starvation, which are in turn caused by chronic hyperglycemia.
The cat may also have trouble walking and jumping, and may need to sit down after a few steps. Neuropathy sometimes heals on its own within 6—10 weeks once blood sugar is regulated, but anecdotal evidence points to a faster and more complete recovery with methylcobalamin supplements.
Causes[ edit ] The signs of diabetes mellitus are caused by a persistently high blood glucose concentration, which may be caused by either insufficient insulin, or by a lack of response to insulin. Early diagnosis and treatment by a qualified veterinarian can help in preventing nerve damage, and, in rare cases, lead to remission.
Because diabetes is a disease of carbohydrate metabolism, a move to a primarily protein and fat diet reduces the occurrence of hyperglycemia. Diet[ edit ] Diet is a critical component of treatment, and is in many cases effective on its own.
For example, a recent mini-study  showed that many diabetic cats stopped needing insulin after changing to a low carbohydrate diet. The rationale is that a low-carbohydrate diet reduces the amount of insulin needed and keeps the variation in blood sugar low and easier to predict.
Also, fats and proteins are metabolized slower than carbohydrates, reducing dangerous blood-sugar peaks right after meals. Recent recommended diets are trending towards a low carbohydrate diet for cats   rather than the formerly-recommended high-fiber diet.
Carbohydrate levels are highest in dry cat foods made out of grains even the expensive "prescription" types so cats are better off with a canned diet that is protein and fat focused. Medications[ edit ] Oral medications like Glipizide that stimulate the pancreas, promoting insulin release or in some cases, reduce glucose productionare less and less used in cats,  and these drugs may be completely ineffective if the pancreas is not working.
These drugs have also been shown in some studies  to damage the pancreas further or to cause liver damage. Some owners are reluctant to switch from pills to insulin injections, but the fear is unjustified; the difference in cost and convenience is minor most cats are easier to inject than to pilland injections are more effective at treating the disease.
Insulin[ edit ] The method usually employed is a dose of slow-acting insulin, twice daily, to keep the blood sugar within a recommended range for the entire day.
With this method, it is important for the cat to avoid large meals or high-carbohydrate food. Meals may also be timed to coincide with peak insulin activity. Once-daily doses are not recommended,  since insulin usually metabolizes faster in cats than in humans or dogs.
The best choice of insulin brand and type varies from animal-to-animal and may require some trial-and-error. The Lente and Ultralente versions were popular for feline use until summerwhen they were discontinued.
There are sources in the US and UK, and many vets are now starting to recommend them again for pets, but they have been discontinued by most manufacturers as of [update] Caninsulin known in the US as Vetsulin is a brand of porcine-based insulin approved for cats which is available with a veterinarian's prescription.
According to the manufacturer's website, the insulin's action profile in cats was similar to that of NPH insulin, and lowered blood sugar quickly, but for only about 6—8 hours. Studies have had good results with insulin glargine in cats. If the cat free-feeds and normally eats little bits all day or night, it may be best to use a very slow-acting insulin to keep a constant level of blood glucose.
Some veterinarians still use the outdated recommendation of using Humulin "N" or NPH insulin for cats, which is very fast-acting for most cats. The first goal is to regulate the cat's blood glucose by keeping the blood glucose values in a comfortable range for the cat during the most of the day.Insulin is a hormone produced by certain cells in the pancreas called beta cells.
Insulin helps the body use blood glucose (a type of sugar) for energy. When we eat and absorb food, glucose levels rise and insulin is released.
Some people can't make insulin; those people have type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes: The situation with insulin in Type 2 diabetes is very different from that in Type 1. Type 2 diabetes is a condition of insulin resistance, meaning that muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond properly to insulin, and they can’t easily absorb glucose from the bloodstream.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas that permits glucose to enter cells and helps the body use glucose for energy. Insulin controls the amount of glucose in the blood. The American Heart Association explains Diabetes, types 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, insulin resistance and how diabetes develops.
Insulin can be given by a syringe, injection pen, or an insulin pump that delivers a continuous flow of insulin. Your doctor will work with you to figure out which type of insulin is best for you depending on whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, your blood sugar levels,and your lifestyle.
Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone secreted by the pancreas. Many people with diabetes are prescribed insulin, either because their bodies do not produce insulin (type 1 diabetes) or do not use insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). There are more than 20 types of insulin sold in the United.