The site presents many excellent articles that deal with varied bioethical issues. It contains a detailed description of the philosophy and components of critical thinking. Decisions involving bioethical issues are made every day in diverse situations such as the relationship between patients and their physicians, the treatment of human subjects in biomedical experimentation, the allocation of scarce medical resources, the complex questions that surround the beginning and the end of a human life and the conduct of clinical medicine and life sciences research. Ethicists serve as advisers to hospitals and other health care institutions.
These issues need to be considered by all stakeholders, including veterinarians, to ensure that all parties are aware of the ethical issues at stake and can make a valid contribution to the current debate regarding the creation and use of genetically engineered animals.
In addition, it is important to try to reflect societal values within scientific practice and emerging technology, especially publicly funded efforts that aim to provide societal benefits, but that may be deemed ethically contentious.
As a result of the extra challenges that genetically engineered animals bring, governing bodies have started to develop relevant policies, often calling for increased vigilance and monitoring of potential animal welfare impacts 2. Veterinarians can play an important role in carrying out such monitoring, especially in the research setting when new genetically engineered animal strains are being developed.
Several terms are used to describe genetically engineered animals: In the early stages of genetic engineering, the primary technology used was transgenesis, literally meaning the transfer of genetic material from one organism to another.
However, with advances in the field, new technology emerged that did not necessarily require transgenesis: For clarity, in the new CCAC guidelines on: There are 3 types of cloning: DNA cloning, therapeutic cloning, and reproductive cloning 3.
Reproductive cloning is used if the intention is to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently, or previously existing animal. The process used to generate this type of cloned animal is called somatic cell nuclear transfer SCNT 4.
During the development of the CCAC guidelines on: The different applications of genetically engineered animals are presented first to provide context for the discussion. Current context of genetically engineered animals Genetic engineering technology has numerous applications involving companion, wild, and farm animals, and animal models used in scientific research.
The majority of genetically engineered animals are still in the research phase, rather than actually in use for their intended applications, or commercially available.
In addition to the insertion of foreign genes, gene knock-out techniques are also being used to create designer companion animals. For example, in the creation of hypoallergenic cats some companies use genetic engineering techniques to remove the gene that codes for the major cat allergen Fel d1: Companion species have also been derived by cloning.
With the exception of a couple of isolated cases, the genetically engineered pet industry is yet to move forward. However, it remains feasible that genetically engineered pets could become part of day-to-day life for practicing veterinarians, and there is evidence that clients have started to enquire about genetic engineering services, in particular the cloning of deceased pets 5.
Wild animals The primary application of genetic engineering to wild species involves cloning. This technology could be applied to either extinct or endangered species; for example, there have been plans to clone the extinct thylacine and the woolly mammoth 5.
Individuals involved in field conservation often harbour suspicions that hi-tech approaches, backed by high profile publicity would divert funding away from their own efforts.
Examples include transgenic pigs and sheep that have been genetically altered to express higher levels of growth hormone 9.
In any circumstance, privacy and confidentiality are critical because the genetic results are directly related to an individual’s identity. 5 Not only is confidentiality an issue for health care, but to prevent genetic discrimination in insurance coverage and employment, as well. Information from a genetic test can affect an entire family. The genetic engineering of animals has increased significantly in recent years, and the use of this technology brings with it ethical issues, some of which relate to animal welfare — defined by the World Organisation for Animal Health as “the state of the animal how an animal is coping with. A contemporary example is genetic engineering, the development and application of scientific procedures that permit direct manipulation of genetic material in order to alter the hereditary traits of a .
Genetically engineered farm animals can be created to enhance food quality 9. Such advances may add to the nutritional value of animal-based products.
Farm species may be genetically engineered to create disease-resistant animals 9. Specific examples include conferring immunity to offspring via antibody expression in the milk of the mother; disruption of the virus entry mechanism which is applicable to diseases such as pseudorabies ; resistance to prion diseases; parasite control especially in sheep ; and mastitis resistance particularly in cattle.
Genetic engineering has also been applied with the aim of reducing agricultural pollution.A time-lapse movie of stem cells forming a primitive streak, a feature of the early human embryo.
The cells are genetically modified with a molecule that glows green. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
The development of genetic engineering technology led to concerns in the scientific community about potential risks. The development of a regulatory framework concerning genetic engineering began in , at Asilomar, r-bridal.com Asilomar meeting recommended a set of guidelines regarding the cautious use of recombinant technology and any products resulting from that technology.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
The first attempt at modifying human DNA was performed in by Martin Cline, but the first successful nuclear gene transfer in humans, approved by the National Institutes of Health, was performed in May Genetic engineering could be used to remove genes associated with allergies, e.g., the blocking of the gene that produces the allergenic protein in peanuts.
The insertion of genes into crops such as rice and wheat can enhance their nutritional value, e.g., Golden Rice.
Updated November Introduction. Genetic engineering, or genetic modification, uses a variety of tools and techniques from biotechnology and bioengineering to modify an organism’s genetic makeup.