How fire came to man There was a time when the ancestors lived In Wota-emi and when the creator god Bilik lived across the strait in Tolloktima.
Ganges Plain[ edit ] After BCE, some Vedic tribes began migrating to the Ganges Plainpresent-day India, which was characterized by increasing settled agriculture, a hierarchy of four social classesand the emergence of monarchical, state-level polities.
These several tribes and principalities fought against one another to such an extent that the Indus Valley no longer had one powerful Vedic tribal kingdom to defend against outsiders and to wield the warring tribes into one organized kingdom. The area was wealthy and fertile, yet infighting led misery and despair.
King Pushkarasakti of Gandhara was engaged in power struggles against his local rivals and as such the Khyber Pass remained poorly defended. King Darius I of the Achaemenid Empire took advantage of the opportunity and planned for an invasion. The Indus Valley was fabled in Persia for its gold and fertile soil and conquering it had been a major objective of his predecessor Cyrus The Great.
However, he is known to have campaigned beyond Makran in the regions of KalatKhuzdar and Panjgur and lost most of his army in the Gedrosian Desert speculated today as the Kharan Desert. Under Persian rule, a system of centralized administration, with a bureaucratic system, was introduced into the Indus Valley for the first time.
Provinces or "satrapy" were established with provincial capitals: Gandhara satrapy, established BC with its capital at Pushkalavati Charsadda. Gandhara Satrapy was established in the general region of the old Gandhara grave culture, in what is today Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
During Achaemenid rule, the Kharosthi alphabet, derived from the one used for Aramaic the official language of Achaemenidsdeveloped here and remained the national script of Gandhara until AD. Hindush satrapy, established in BC with its capital at Taxila.
The satrapy was established in upper Punjab presumably in the Potohar plateau region.
Arachosia satrapy, established in BC with its capital at Kandahar. Arachosia was one of the larger provinces covering much of lower Punjab, southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of modern-day Pakistan and Helmand province of what is today Afghanistan. Sattagydia satrapy, established in BC in what is today Sindh.
Sattagydia is mentioned for the first time in the Behistun inscription of Darius the Great as one of the provinces in revolt while the king was in Babylon. The revolt was presumably suppressed in BC. The satrapy disappears from sources after BC, possibly being mentioned by another name or included with other regions.
It had been conquered much earlier by Cyrus The Great. What is known about the easternmost satraps and borderlands of the Achaemenid Empire is alluded to in the Darius inscriptions and from Greek sources such as the Histories of Herodotus and the later Alexander Chronicles Arrian, Strabo et al.
These sources list three Indus Valley tributaries or conquered territories that were subordinated to the Persian Empire and made to pay tributes to the Persian Kings: Gandhara, Sattagydia and Hindush.
Ror Dynasty The Ror dynasty Sindhi: The remaining satraps lay in the Indus Valley, but Alexander ruled off invading the Indus until his forces were in complete control of the newly acquired satraps. In BC, Alexander married Roxana a princess of the former Bactria satrapy to cement his relations with his new territories.
Now firmly under Macedonian rule, Alexander was free to turn his attention to the Indus Valley. The rationale for the Indus campaign is usually said to be Alexander's desire to conquer the entire known world, which the Greeks thought ended around the vicinity of the River Indus.
Link to University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna) Online copy of "The Broken Palmyra - The Tamil Crisis in Sri Lanka: An Inside Account". By Rajan Hoole, . A brief summary of the Ramayana story (Sanskrit epic). Quick guide to the Ramayana Background. The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic which follows Prince Rama's quest to rescue his beloved wife Sita from the clutches of Ravana with the help of an army of monkeys. It is traditionally attributed to the authorship of the sage Valmiki and dated to around BCE to BCE. Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin
In the winter of BC, Alexander invited all the chieftains in the remaining five Achaemenid satraps to submit to his authority.The history of Pakistan encompasses the history of the region constituting modern-day Pakistan, which is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions of South Asia, East Asia and Central Asia.
For over three millennia, the region has witnessed human activity and one of the world's major civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilisation. The Ramayana by Valmiki has influenced and shaped all aspects of Indian society. The Ramayana was written at around B.C. in Sanskrit. The story is composed of twenty-four thousand verses, divided into seven books.
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My library. Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin Ramayana The Ramayana by R.K. Narayan's is a profound epic story that provides different aspects of Indians culture and which still today influences the politics, religion and art of modern India. He rejuvenated this ancient story and compressed it and set in modern times.
There was a time when the ancestors lived In Wota-emi and when the creator god Bilik lived across the strait in Tolloktima. Now the ancestors had no fire and life was unimaginably hard, as one can imagine it would be without the light and the warmth of a fire beside them in the dark nights.